Geoengineering

 

In a literature assessment, Barker et al. (2007) described geoengineering as a type of mitigation policy. IPCC (2007) concluded that geoengineering options, such as ocean fertilization to remove CO2 from the atmosphere, remained largely unproven.[68] It was judged that reliable cost estimates for geoengineering had not been published.
The Royal Society (2009) published the findings of a study into geoengineering. The authors of the study defined geoengineering as a "deliberate large-scale intervention in the Earth's climate system, in order to moderate global warming" (p. ix). According to the study, the safest and most predictable method of moderating climate change is early action to reduce GHG emissions.
Scientists such as Ken Caldeira and Paul Crutzen (2008), suggest geoengineering techniques, which can be employed to change the climate deliberately and thus control some of the effects of global warming. These include:
Solar radiation management may be seen as an adaptation to global warming. Techniques such as space sunshade, creating stratospheric sulfur aerosols and painting roofing and paving materials white all fall into this category.
Hydrological geoengineering - typically seeking to preserve sea ice or adjust thermohaline circulation by using methods such as diverting rivers to keep warm water away from sea ice, or tethering icebergs to prevent them drifting into warmer waters and melting. This may be seen as an adaptation technique,[according to whom?] although by preventing Arctic methane release it may also have mitigation aspects as well.
 
Barker, T. (2007). 11.2.2 Ocean fertilization and other geo-engineering options. In (book chapter): Mitigation from a cross-sectoral perspective. In: Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (B. Metz et al. (eds.)). Print version: Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, and New York, N.Y., U.S.A.. This version: IPCC website. ISBN 978-0-521-88011-4. Archived from the original on 29 March 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-05.
IPCC (2007). C. Mitigation in the short and medium term (until 2030). In (book section): Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (B. Metz et al. (eds.)). Print version: Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, and New York, N.Y., U.S.A.. This version: IPCC website. ISBN 978-0-521-88011-4. Archived from the original on 2 May 2010. Retrieved 2010-05-15.
Royal Society (September 2009). Summary. In (document): Geoengineering the climate: science, governance and uncertainty. RS Policy document 10/09. The UK Royal Society's website. ISBN 978-0-85403-773-5. Archived from the original on 3 May 2010. Retrieved 2010-05-15.
Robert Kunzig (October 2008). "Geoengineering: How to Cool Earth--At a Price". Scientific American. Retrieved 15 January 2009.